Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program
Supporting healthy weight and nutrition from pregnancy through the first five years
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is one of the nation’s largest federal nutrition programs, serving approximately 6.3 million people, including about half of all infants born in the United States. WIC helps low-income pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women, infants, and children up to age 5 achieve and maintain a healthy weight by providing healthy foods and nutrition education; promoting breastfeeding and supporting nursing mothers; and providing healthcare and social-service referrals. WIC was funded at $6.17 billion in FY18, with $60 million designated for breastfeeding initiatives, and $18.5 million directed to the WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program that provides fresh, locally grown produce to participants. The U.S. Department of Agriculture administers the funds and state agencies execute the program.
The WIC food package is required by law to be periodically re-evaluated to ensure it aligns with the latest U.S. Dietary Guidelines. In 2009, the WIC food package was updated to include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lower-fat milk. Research shows that, following the changes, WIC participants are buying and eating more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products. National obesity rates for 2- to 4-year-old children on WIC declined from 15.9 percent in 2010 to 13.9 in 2016.
• States should continue to work towards achieving WIC Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) by 2020.
• As the WIC food package is revised by USDA, all recommendations should be scientifically based.
• The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services should continue to support WIC for its role in lead screening.
WIC Food Package
In 2009, based on the Institute of Medicine’s recommendations, USDA updated the WIC food package to include more fruits, vegetables,whole grains, and lower-fat milk, with the goal of improving children’s health and nutrition. A study conducted by Healthy Eating Research, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, found significant decreases in purchases of calories, sodium, fat, sugar, refined grains, grain-based desserts, high-fat milk, and sugary drinks among low-income families with preschool-age children following these updates. It also found increases in fruits and vegetables purchases, concluding that the updated WIC food package may encourage participating families to make healthier choices.
Featured Studies and Resources
WIC Food Vouchers
Healthy Eating Research evaluated the impact of the 2009 WIC food package changes on corner stores, convenience stores, and bodegas in two lower-income North Philadelphia neighborhoods. The evaluation found that the changes prompted those stores to begin carrying fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products, and other healthy foods, which also prompted non-WIC participating stores in the area to carry healthier foods.
Updated Nutrition Recommendations
In 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine issued nutrition recommendations for the WIC food package, which include providing more fish; increasing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables; and reducing sodium and saturated fat. The recommendations are expected to “improve both the attractiveness of the program to participants and its success in meeting the WIC program’s goals.”
Obesity Declines Among WIC Participants Ages 2 to 4
The new data show that overall obesity rates among children participating in WIC declined from 15.9 percent in 2010 to 13.9 percent in 2016, with statistically significant decreases among all racial and ethnic subgroups.
31 states and three U.S. territories reported obesity rate declines among 2-to-4 year olds participating in WIC between 2010 and 2014.
Percentage of overweight and obesity among children enrolled in WIC, a decrease from 32.5 percent in 2010.
Number of infants and children who received WIC benefits in 2018.